This paper seeks to analyse the Government's policy towards the availability of affordable credit in the United Kingdom (UK). dropped, at least for the time being. (Percentage of respondents mentioning issues amongst top three factors). 11. (2004). New Labour�s evolving discourse on exclusion from school: mere political rhetoric or promoting educational inequality? Then we show the housing situation of the Roma in Serbia, Romania, and Hungary and explore how it has been changing throughout the past two decades. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. BBC News. In most articles the �statement�, despite its lack of legal force, was recontextualised predictably as "New Rules for Schools" (e.g. I will return to the issue of the relationship between the texts and statistics showing the levels of exclusion later. Tony Manzi. These relate, first, to issues concerning participation and integration beyond the labour market; second, to aspects of spatial segregation; and third, to exclusion as a form of institutional disengagement. We suggest that despite the report's claims to novelty with regard to policies on urban regeneration, there are considerable areas of overlap with previous area-based approaches to tackling “social exclusion”. (2003). Discourse has various definitions but one way of thinking about it is as any piece of extended language, written or spoken, that has unity and meaning and purpose. Permanent Exclusions from Maintained Schools in England, 2002/2003, DfES. Thirdly, the use of Hallidayan systemic functional linguistics(5) was helpful in illuminating relationships between grammatical and semantic structures and discourse. argumentation analysis to break down the generic structure of the key arguments There is very little reference made to prior policy on exclusions/behaviour/discipline despite being issued at a time when the Labour government had been in power for some four years. I would suggest that this depersonalised construction is a grammatical metaphor(15) (Fairclough, 2003) which makes it easier to demonise the children whose �behaviour� is implicitly being referred to. It argues, however, that rather than internalising the extensive and intensive media-fuelled territorial stigmatisation of their ‘notorious’ estate, as Wacquant’s analysis implies, residents have largely disregarded, rejected, or actively resisted the notion that they are living in an ‘estate from hell,’ while their sense of place belonging has not dissolved. relationship and embedding describes a clause which functions as an element of However the issue was not mentioned in the Queen�s speech and as yet it is unclear whether any new process will be implemented. T, not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other, liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or, This article may be used for research, teaching, and priv, reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, the Labour Government’s Social Exclusion Unit report, Downloaded by [University of Tasmania] at 16:29 24 November 2014, analysis, has provided a theoretical framework that has, view to promote “sustainable policies”. Developing effective housing management strategies to address problems of anti-social behaviour, Pos... Power, Discursive Space and Institutional Practices in the Construction of Housing Problems, Social Exclusion in the New Breadline Britain Survey, Social Exclusion and Older People: exploring the connections. Moral underclass discourse—stressing coercive responses to the moral and behavioural delinquency of people living in poverty. In 1998 (text 1), while parental irresponsibility is identified as a problem, the solution is seen as the provision of help for parents, albeit with some compulsion. (2004). (ed. In Fairclough�s (2003, p.201) words, "Generic representations contribute to the hegemonic universalization of a particular representation". small number of occurrences of each term. These ideas are explored further with reference to empirical evidence drawn from group discussions with older people living in socially deprived neighbourhoods in three English cities. Parataxis describes clauses which are Police get power to search pupils at random for knives. Education: Truancy and Exclusions must be cut by a third. ways including being assumed, rejected or engaging in dialogue with. In order to explore these relationships I created what I term �text network diagrams� for each of the three texts(6). It was released on the day the Charles Clarke (then education secretary) gave a speech to the National College for School Leadership�s conference for new heads (National College for School Leadership, 2004) which was also accompanied by the requisite interview on Radio 4�s today programme (BBC Radio 4, 2004). Dunn, Y. This is known as the Moral/Underclass Discourse. All rights reserved. London, DfES. Chilton, P. (2004). Social housing estates – as developed either by governments (public housing) or not-for-profit agencies – became a prominent feature of the 20th century urban landscape in Northern European cities, but also in North America and Australia. & Hill, J. 3. The article refers to the genesis of the content of the term 'social exclusion', its current usage and relation to a range of social processes (exclusion from securities and exposure to risks - including environmental risks, exclusion from the labour market, exclusion from mobility paths, etc.). Taylor, S. (2004) Researching educational policy and change in 'new times': using critical discourse analysis, During the last three decades, however, Western governments have launched high-profile ‘new urban renewal’ programs whose aim has been to change the image and status of social housing estates away from being zones of concentrated poverty, crime and other social problems. RED refers to a traditional left-wing redistributionist discourse concerned with structural inequality and disadvantage. Ways in which social exclusion may affect older people have largely been neglected. However, the proposed legislation was dropped as a result of the general election. Producing the Morally Captive Guest: Discourse and Power in Gratitude Education of Migrant Children in Beijing - Volume 240 - Miao Li, Yihan Xiong Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and … The remit of the unit also includes developing indicators of success in combating social exclusion. I have only included data on Following a discussion of existing approaches to exclusion, three key themes are developed in greater detail. 6 in Appendix 2) indicates that while parents are classified as a generic group in 1997, they are further passivated in 2001. For them paid work means social discipline. and how it does it), in preference to more structural approaches, which place Text 3 was issued six months before the recent (2005) general election. Indeed recent work on the marketisation of education (Pearce, 2004) has demonstrated the effectiveness of CDA in revealing significant shifts in discourse over time. 4. Authors: Anna Haworth. SID has the �third way� priority of equal access to employment at its core, surrounded by concerns about educational standards. e.g. The British government has initiated a national strategy for neighborhood renewal, with particular focus on social exclusion. This framework is used to interpret the ideological and political significance of the Social Exclusion Unit's report. However by text 2 (2001) this concern about the treatment of children has been replaced by a significant discourse of violence in which children are the perpetrators. 'Walking Tall' - More Support for Schools to Tackle Bad Behaviour. �500M will help schools to [sic] LEAs reduce truancy and exclusions - Estelle Morris. By contrast, poor housing—in the form of heating breakdowns, leaks, infestation, inadequate repairs and maintenance—caused major distress and frustration and was a more important facet of their everyday lives than territorial stigmatisation. � SFL grew out of the work of JR Firth, a British linguist of 2004/0196. However there is ambivalence over whether it is the behaviour of parents or pupils which is being addressed. She dubs these discourses; Redistribution Discourse (RED), Social Integration Discourse (SID) and Moral ‘Underclass’ Discourse (MUD). What is achieved and lost in living in a mixed-income neighborhood? The concept of social mix is perceived as an attempt to minimize social exclusion by enhancing individual social capital. social context. First, it fits with the principles of marketization, especially the logic of consumerism and the implication of choice, engagement, participation, competitive tendering, and the like. Related policies have been implemented in many countries to prevent isolation of certain groups and achieve social integration. This tended to be in unpopular schools, primarily those with poor exam results and/or poor inspection outcomes and invariably located in deprived areas, a practice which, at least in perception, worsened the problems of already struggling schools. Many excluded children were placed with little planning where there was room. to be collected and no trend is yet apparent. The moral underclass discourse (MUD) attributes social exclusion to the moral or behavioural deficiencies of the excluded. However, some proposals contained in text 3 appear never to have been intended to result in any concrete measures. He argues Osler, A. In the current study the concept is discipline in schools, it seems likely that these proposals have in fact been Analysis of the ways in which social actors are represented in the texts (fig. While the Queen�s speech of 17th May 2005 included a promise that "A bill will be introduced to give police and local communities new powers to tackle knives, guns and alcohol-related violence." It seems likely that this lack of logic and clarity in the grammatical and argumentation structures reflects the timing of its publication. The Queen's Speech, Guardian Unlimited. of the population from access to financial services such as banks. raise the minimum age for the purchase of knives to 18 but makes no mention of London, DfES. The guiding principle of the SEU is that the multi-dimensional problems of poverty and social exclusion (presumed to be connected but not identical) require co-ordinated policy initiatives. 2001/0300. It also plans an Autumn conference with LEAs to set individual targets. Copies of the full diagrams New Labour, New Language? discourse definition: 1. communication in speech or writing 2. a speech or piece of writing about a particular, usually…. Text 1 (1998) was issued as a co-publication with the Statistical First Release giving the exclusion statistics for the previous academic year. On new powers to search children for knives, the promise of co-ordination with the Home Office led to a Home Office Press Release on the issue in December 2004 (Home Office, 2004). Managing the 'Underclass': Interpreting the Moral Discourse of Housing Management Show all authors. Later in text 2 parataxis is again used to imply that �anti-social behaviour�, �harassment of staff or pupils�, �trespass�, �assault� and �public disorder� are equivalent by including them as items in a list (Text 2, lines 54-55)(Fairclough, 2000, p.161-162). Even when implemented, the measures can barely handle the complex marginalized social, economic, and cultural situation of the Roma in the region. 4 The change in the types of words co-located with �children� and �pupils�. Taylor, C., Fitz, J. The miners were “getting exactly what they voted for”—exactly what they deserved, in other words. Similarly, during 2004 the NASUWT issued repeated press releases advising their members to refuse to take school trips creating regular press coverage of the issue. housing exclusion policies, and link them to the general exclusion of Roma (Kemeny 2001). She has called these; Redistributionist Discourse (RED) Moral Underclass Discourse (MUD) Social Intergrationist Discourse (SID) RED Prime concern is to do with poverty and draws upon the analysis of Townsend who argued that when income and resources fall below a certain level people are excluded from the normal activities of their society. Fairclough, N. (2003). This report is designed to meet deliverable 5.1 in the framework of WP5 (cf. The predominately paratactic(14) grammatical relations between clauses in all three texts serve to background difference by equating clauses, becoming what Fairclough (2003) terms �hortatory report�. In the first section of the chapter we examine the discourse of housing exclusion of the Roma. This shift is reflected in the terms co-located with the words �children� and �pupils�. chains� to refer to the way in which different genres are linked together in the It looks at who are criminally inclined, unemployment young men and sexually and socially irresponsible single women. At times, planners also use the buzzwords that show up in the public discourse of these disciplines and professions, as well as in the news media, official reports, and other informational material targeted at elite and college-educated Americans. Finally, the rise of neo-conservative moral underclass discourse is clear as by 2004 it virtually eclipses alternative perspectives. Thus, I am arguing that, in texts 2 and 3, a child behaving in a Taken in combination with currently ongoing work of the However, other commentators have maintained that social exclusion draws in part on a moral underclass discourse that focuses on the moral and behavioural delinquency of the excluded (Levitas, 1998, p 27). HM The Queen (2005). Search Google Scholar for this author, Tony Manzi. If Breadline Britain is to address questions of poverty and disadvantage in this new context, it needs to relate them explicitly to the question of social exclusion. For example, the issue of children carrying knives in school rose to prominence in the media following the publicity surrounding the murder of Luke Walmsley in November 2003. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. DfES, National Foundation for Educational Research. A further six focus on knives and one covers both topics. Ruth Levitas (1998) sees New Labour’s version of social exclusion as embedded in three distinct and conflicting discourses, which she labels redistributionist (RED), social integrationist (SID) and moral underclass (MUD). O. f. S. i. Wilkin, A., Archer, T., Ridley, K., Fletcher-Campbell, F. & Kinder, K. (2005). ... Before we examine these two discourses in detail, we will take a brief excursus into discourse analysis. In particular, the clarity which is present in text 2 about the possibility of either parent or pupil being an innocent party (Text 2, line 55) is absent here. 088/2005. It is seen to concentrate poverty, unemployment, and even vandalism in specific areas, ultimately causing greater social problems. Regenerating London explores latest thinking on urban regeneration in one of the fastest changing world cities. Fairclough (2000)) are generally computerised analyses of a large corpus. Discourses, Assumptions and Representations. London, DfES. We have allowed too many people to fall out-of-touch with mainstream values. It emerges in text 2 (2001) and dominates by text 3 (2004). Department for Education and Skills (1998a). of policy announcements from White Paper, via Press Release to newspaper 1999;Levitas et al. For example, �Foundation partnerships� (line 17) is drawn from the 5-year strategy for education published in July 2004 (Department for Education and Skills, 2004a). The reason for text 2�s (2001) conflicted problems and solutions now becomes apparent as a schism between social integrationist discourse on the one hand and moral underclass discourse on the other. Available online at: (accessed 4th June 2005). DfES, DfES. MUD means Moral Underclass Discourse. "PC computing". (Text 1, line 11) and "Parents who need help with parenting will get it." Taylor (2004, p.435) has criticised the lack of "fine grained linguistic analysis" of education policy to date and argued that CDA is a potentially powerful tool for educational policy analysis because it has the capacity to show how language works in policy texts. Data drawn from (Department for Education and Skills, 2004c, 2005a), fig.1 The trend in recorded levels of permanent exclusion from school 1997 to 2004, The contribution of Critical Discourse Analysis. authoritarian discourse on school discipline will continue to encourage its use. The main focus, however, is on the problem of exclusion from school as absence from education. parataxis, hypotaxis and embedded clauses.

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